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定语从句的成分因素是什么

    发布时间:2015-03-14 13:09

    1. 关系代词用来指代先行词是人或物的名词或代词
    句子成分 用于限制从句或非限制性从句 只用于限制性从句
    代替人 代替物 代替人或物
    主语 Who which that
    主语 Whom which that
    宾语 Whose(=of whom) whose(=of which)

    例1:This is the detective who came from London.
    例2:The book which I am reading is written by Tomas Hardy.
    例3:The desk whose leg is broken is very old.
    例4:This is the room that Shakespeare was born in.

    2.关系代词的用法
    (1) 如果先行词是all, much, anything, something, nothing, everything, little, none等不定代词,关系代词一般只用that,不用which。例如:
    All the people that are present burst into tears.
    (2) 如果先等词被形容词最高级以及first, last, any, only, few, mush, no, some, very等词修饰,关系代词常用that,不用which, who,或whom。例如:
    (3) 非限制性定语从句中,不能用关系代词that,作宾语用的关系代词也不能省略。例如:
    There are about seven million people taking part in the election, most of whom、are well educated.
    (4) which还有一种特殊用法,它可以引导从句修饰前面的整个主句,代替主句所表示的整体概念或部分概念。在这种从句中,which可以作主语,也可以作宾语或表语,多数情况下意思是与and this 相似,并可以指人。例如:
    He succeeded in the competition, which made his parents very happy.
    (5) that可指人或物,在从句中作表语,(指人作主语时多用who)仅用于限制性定语从句中。
    (6) which可作表语,既可指人,以可指物。指人时,一般指从事某种职业或是有种特征.品性或才能的人。Which引导的定语从句可以限制性的,也可以是非限制性的。
    (7) 如果作先作词的集体名词着眼于集体的整体,关系代词用which;若是指集体中的各个成员,则用who。
    (8) 先行词有两个,一个指人,一个指物,关系代词应该用that。例如:
    The boy and the dog that are in the picture are very lovely.
    (9) 如果先行词是anyone, anybody, everyone, everybody, someone, somebody,关系代词应该用 who 或whom,不用 which。例如:
    Is there anyone here who will go with you?

    3.“介词+关系代词“是一个普遍使用的结构
    (1) “介词+关系代词“可以引导限制性定语从句,也可以引导非限制性定语从句。“介词+关系代词“结构中的介词可以是 in, on, about, from, for, with, to at, of, without 等,关系代词只可用whom或 which,不可用 that 。
    (2) from where为“介词+关系副词“结构,但也可以引导定语从句。例如:
    We stood at the top of the hill, from where we can see the town..
    (3) 像listen to, look at, depend on, pay attention to, take care of等固定短语动词,在定语从句中一般不宜将介词与动词分开。例如:
    This is the boy whom she has taken care of.

    二.关系副词引导的定语从句

    1.关系副词也可以引导定语从句
    关系副词在从句中分别表示时间.地点或原因。关系副词when在从句中充当时间状语,where 充当地点状语,why充当原因状语。

    2. that可引导定语从句表示时间.地点或原因
    That有时可以代替关系副词 when, where 或者why引导定语从句表示时间.地点或原因,在 that引导的这种定语从句中,that也可以省去。

    三.限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句

    1.二者差异比较
    限制定语从句紧跟先行词,同先行词这间一般不加逗号,仅修饰先行词,可以由关系代词.关系副词或that来引导。非限制性定语从句仅作补充或说明,用逗号与主句隔开,既可修饰先行词,又可修饰整个主句,不可用that引导。

    2.关系代词和关系副词的选择依据
    (1) 弄清代替先行词的关系词在从句中作什么成分,作状语的应选用关系副词,作主语.宾语或表语的可选用关系代词。 3. 先行词与定语从句隔离
    定语从句一般紧跟在先行词之后,但定语从句与先行词之间有时也会插入别的成分,构成先行词与定语从句的隔离。例如:
    1) This is the article written by him that Is poke to you about..
    2) He was the only person in this country who was invited

    四.As在定语从句中的用法

    1. 引导限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句
    (1)as多与such 或the same连用,可以代替先行词是人或物的名词。
    (2)as 也可单独使用,引导非限制性定语从句,作用相当于which。例如:
    The elephant’s nose is like a snake, as anybody can see.
    3)the same… that与 the same …as在意思上是不同的。
    2.As引导的非限制性定语从句的位置
    as引导的非限制性定语从句位置较灵活,可以位于主句前面.中间或后面,一般用逗号与主句隔开,但which所引导的非限制性定语从句只能放在主句之后。例如:
    (1) As is expected, the England team won the football match.
    (2) The earth runs around the sun, as is known by everyone.

    回复:

    先把先行词带到从句里面,按照正常顺序分析,在动词,介词后面就该是宾语。在动词前面就是主语了

    回复:

    定语从句
    定语从句就是修饰名词的从句,被修饰的名词称为先行词(Antecedent)。定语从句由关系代词(Relative Pronoun)和关系副词(Relative Adverb)引导,前者在从句中作主语、宾语或表语,后者在从句中作状语。
    1.关系代词的选择
    先行词为事物时,关系代词用which或that;先行词指一个模糊的、一般的人时,who和that都适宜。如:
    I need someone who can do the work quickly.
    我需要能够迅速完成这项工作的人。
    当先行词指一个具体的、特定的人时,多用who。如:
    The aunt who came to see us last week is my father’s sister.
    上星期来看我们的姑姑是我父亲的姐姐。
    先行词指物,前面又有一个不定代词、最高级形容词或序数词修饰时,关系代词多用that。如:
    He has got all the tools that we need.他有我们需要的所有工具。
    This is the funnest film that has come from the studio.
    这是那个制片厂制作的最滑稽的电影。
    The first statement that was issued gave very few details.
    最先发布的声明没有公布什么细节。
    先行词本身为不定代词时,关系代词多用that。如:
    The government has promised to do all that lies in its power to alleviate the hardships of the people.
    政府承诺尽其一切力量减轻人民的苦难。
    关系代词在从句中作表语时,只能用that或which,不能用who或whom,但可以省略。如:
    John is not the man (that/which) he was years ago.
    约翰已不再是多年前的他了。
    当先行词和定语从句被其他句子成分隔开时,用who或which较为恰当,用that容易造成句子结构不清楚。如:
    A war broke out which lasted for forty years.
    一场延续了四十年的战争爆发了。
    Anybody can explain this who knows English grammar.
    任何懂得英语语法的人都能解释这一点。
    先行词为集合名词时,如果该词指一个整体,则关系代词用which;如果指组成整体的所有成员,则关系代词用who。如:
    Our team, who are all in good form, will do well in the coming matches.
    我们组织良好的队伍在未来赛事中一定会表现出色。
    Our team, which placed second last year, played even better this year.
    去年排名第二的我们队今年打得更为出色。
    2.介词十关系代词
    有时关系代词之前要用介词。“介词+关系代词”在从句中作状语。如:
    The world is stage, on which every role will find a player.—Middleton
    世界是个舞台,各种角色都是人扮演。(英)米德尔顿
    This is a question in which people are interested.这是人们感兴趣的问题。
    A bottle opener is a tool with which bottles are opened.
    开瓶器是用来打开瓶盖的工具。
    当介词+关系代词作地点状语、时间状语时,它们常常可以被where,when或why代替。如:
    The malls of the future will be small cities where/in which you can shop.
    eat, and see a film and even dance.
    未来的购物街会像一个个小商城,你可以在那里购物、就餐、看电影甚至跳舞。
    He was born on the day/when his father died.他在父亲去世的那一天出生。
    This is another reason which/why food gram has to be imported.
    这是必须进口谷物的另一原因。
    重点提示
    对于定语从句,基于意义上的需要,可以在some, any, few, several, many, most, all, both, noce, neither, either, each, enough, half, one, two等词和形容语最高级之后接of whom或of which。如:
    The North Island is famous for an area of an anrea of hot springs.some of which throw hot water hight into the air.
    北岛是著名的温泉胜地,有些温泉的热水能高高地喷向半空。
    New Zealand has a population of about 3.8 million people, of which about fourteen percent are Maori.
    新西兰大约有380万人口,其中大约14%是毛利人。
    The tomatoes, half of which have gone bad, are in a basket.
    放在篮子里西红柿有一半已经烂掉了。
    The car ran into a crowd of people, several of whom were sent to hospital immediate.汽车撞进了人群,其中好几个人立即被送望医院。
    I met the table tennis players, two of whom were studying in university.
    我见到了那些乒乓球选手,其中有两人正在大学就读。
    3.限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句
    限定性定语从句(Restrictive Attributive Clause)表示一种区别意义,它帮助读者或听者把先行词所指的人或物与其他的人或物区别开来。没有它,先行词所指的人或物就会模糊不清。非限定性定语从句(Non-Restrictive Attributive Clause)表示一种附加意义,它对先行词作附带说明。省了它,先行词所指的人或物仍然明确清楚。如:
    My uncle is a man who believes in discipline.我叔叔是个十分守纪的人。
    My uncle, who believes in discipline, is very strict with his children.
    我那十分守纪的叔叔对他的孩子们很严格。
    Beijing, which is the capital of China, will hold 2008 Olympic Games.
    北京是中国的首都,将主办2008年奥林匹克运动会。
    Animals and plants must have a habitat or home, which is comfortable and clean.
    动植物必须拥有一个栖息地或家园,而这个栖息地应舒适、清洁。
    重点提示
    修饰整个主句的定语从句为非限定性定语从句。这种定语从句由which或as引导。如果用which引导,定语从句位于主句之后;如果用as引导,定语从句可以位于主句之后,也可以位于主句之前。which或as指整个主句。如:
    We can’t do without rules, which/as you know.
    =As you know, we can’t do without rules.你知道的,没有规矩不行。
    He failed the exam, which/as was natural.
    =As was natural, he failed the exam.他没有考及格,这很自然。
    All the schools will reopen on 1st September, which/as announced in today’s papers.
    =As is announced in today’s newspapers, all the schools will reopen on? lst September.正如报上的通告,所有学校都将在九月一日重新开学。
    在这类定语从句中,关系代词as作主语时,其后面必须有动词be;否则只能用which引导的定语从句。如:
    He admires Mr Brown very much, which surprises me.
    他很崇拜布朗先生,这使我觉得很奇怪。
    He arrived half an hour late, which annoyed us all.
    他迟到了半小时,我们都生气了。

    所有定语从句的试题都可分成两种基本题型,它们有各自的解题钥匙。

    一、基本题型一及解题钥匙

    基本题型一:先行词+关系词直接引导定语从句

    解题钥匙:唯成份论

    说明:用什么关系词直接引导定语从句,唯一取决于先行词在从句中的作用,即取决于先行词在从句中作什么成份,若先行词在从句中相当于代词作用,则应使关系代词who/whom/which/whose/as引导定语从句,而先行词在从句中相当于副词作用,则应使用关系副词when/where/why引导定语从句。

    例1:Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, ______, of course, made the others unhappy.(NMET 2000)

    A、who B、which C、this D、what

    析:选B,先行词为整个主句,在从句中作主语,所以应使用关系代词,但that不能引导非限制性定语从句,所以只能使用which。

    例2:After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town ______ he grew up as a a child.(NMET 96)

    A、which B、where C、that D、when

    析:选B,因为先行词the small town表地点,在定语从句中作地点状语,所以应使用关系副词where。

    区别于:This is the small town ______ is often praised.

    A、which B、where C、when D、who

    析:选A,先行词the small town仍表地点,但在从句中作主语应属关系代词范畴。

    二、基本题型二及解题钥匙

    基本题型二:先行词+特定词汇+关系代词which/whom引导定语从句。

    说明:特定词词汇通常为:

    1、介词(包括复杂介词)

    2、数词(包括不定量数词)+of

    3、其它词汇(表所属关系)+of

    解题钥匙:定语从句与先行词联系论

    说明:要找出用什么特定词汇引导定语从句,方法是将定语从句和先行词联系成一个完整的句子,此时缺什么词,特定词汇就由什么词担任。

    例1:In the dark street, there wasn't a single person ______ she could turn for help.(NMET 92)

    A、that B、who C、from whom D、to whom

    析:选D,根据定语从句与先行词联系论,可得到这样一个句子:She could turn ______ the single person for help,显然该句缺介词to,因此应用to whom(其先行词指入)引导定语从句。

    例2:He paid the boy for washing ten windows, most of ______ hadn't been cleaned for at least a year.(NMET 90)

    A、these B、those C、that D、which

    析:选D,因为根据定语从句与先行词联系论,可得到这样一个句子:most of the ten windows hadn't been cleaned for at least a year most of which正体现了不定量数词+of which引导定语从句的特点。

    注意上述特定词汇前不能加and、but等连词,否则就不能使用定语从句,而应将whom、which改成them,如:

    I have many friends and the tallest of ______ is LiPing.

    A、who B、whom C、them D、which

    析:选C,因为特定词汇the tallest前面有连词and,所以不能使用定语从句。

    回复:

    定从一般翻译起来时会有‘什么什的’的形容词,但要区分强调句个定从,强调句前面会有个介词如in on之类的。定从把形容词拿开之后翻译也一样会通顺,但前提是你要看的懂句子的意思,谢谢!

    回复:

    that是可以省略的,也可以做成分

    回复:

    hat在定语从句中充当关系代词。
    而同位语从句中的that只是一个引导词,引导一个句子对前面的名词(通常是抽象名词)进行解释或者补充说明,不充当从句的句子成分。
    你的问题刚好是判断一个句子是定语从句还是同位语从句的标准之一,代替前面的先行词,在从句中作主语或者宾语

    回复:

    充当主语或者宾语。

    回复:

    定语从句其实是用一个句子作定语,那么定语从句中的句子成分和其他句子成分一样,无外乎主谓宾、主谓、主系表,再加上其他修饰成供甫垛晃艹浩讹彤番廓分。只要会简单句的句子成分,定于从与的成分也就清楚了。

    回复:

    (Its) cover is dark green.故whose充当定语,从句缺定语。
    如.The temple where he used to live has been destroyed.
    句中that后是名词(主语).故where充当状语:看从句缺什么成分,从句缺状语.I like the book whose cover is dark green。

    如果仅仅是想区分主语或宾语.所以that充当宾语,后面是名词(主语)的话先行词就是宾语,就是看关系词后是什么词性的词,还有一种简便的方法,从句缺主语。
    比如.
    句中that后是谓语动词.
    去掉where后。
    4。
    2.Father is talking to the man that we are afraid of,所以that就充当宾语:I met yesterday,可以用who来代替:
    1。
    2.Father is talking to the man that has stayed here for a long time.所以who充当主语.
    去掉that后。
    3.He is the policeman who caught the thief the other day:
    1,可以用whom来代替.
    去掉who后:He used to live (in the temple),是动词(谓语)的话先行词就是主语:caught the thief the other day,所以that就充当主语.He is the policeman that I met yesterday,从句缺宾语.
    去掉whose后最简单的方法

    回复:

    that在定语从句中充当关系代词,代替前面的先行词,在从句中作主语或者宾语。 而同位语从句中的that只是一个引导词,引导一个句子对前面的名词(通常是抽象名词)进行解释或者补充说明,不充当从句的句子成分。 你的问题刚好是判断一个句子是定...

    回复:

    定语从句其实是用一个句子作定语,那么定语从句中的句子成分和其他句子成分一样,无外乎主谓宾、主谓、主系表,再加上其他修饰成分。只要会简单句的句子成分,定于从与的成分也就清楚了。

    回复:

    最简单的方法:看从句缺什么成分。 比如: 1.He is the policeman who caught the thief the other day. 去掉who后,从句缺主语:caught the thief the other day.所以who充当主语。 2.He is the policeman that I met yesterday. 去掉that后,...

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